Coding is Analysis

•Codes are tags or labels for assigning units of meaning to the descriptive or inferential information compiled

•It is the meaning that matters
•Codes are used to retrieve and organize the chunks of information, so you can quickly find, pull out, and cluster the segments relating to a particular topic

Four stages of analysis (Glaser and Strauss).

Stage Purpose
Codes Identifying anchors that allow the key points of the data to be gathered
Concepts Collections of codes of similar content that allows the data to be grouped
Categories Broad groups of similar concepts that are used to generate a theory
Theory A collection of explanations that explain the subject of the research

Types of Codes (Miles & Huberman, 1994)

Descriptive: attributing a class of phenomena to a segment of text (e.g., room description) [INDEXING]

Interpretive: include a more complex, underlying meaning (e.g., roles)

Pattern: inferential and explanatory; group codes into a smaller number of themes or constructs; analogous to factor analysis in statistics (e.g., ideology) [CODING]

There are several key analytic strategies (Trochim)

Coding is a process for both categorizing qualitative data and for describing the implications and details of these categories. Initially one does open coding, considering the data in minute detail while developing some initial categories. Later, one moves to more selective coding where one systematically codes with respect to a core concept.

Memoing is a process for recording the thoughts and ideas of the researcher as they evolve throughout the study. You might think of memoing as extensive marginal notes and comments. Again, early in the process these memos tend to be very open while later on they tend to increasingly focus in on the core concept.

Integrative diagrams and sessions are used to pull all of the detail together, to help make sense of the data with respect to the emerging theory. The diagrams can be any form of graphic that is useful at that point in theory development. They might be concept maps or directed graphs or even simple cartoons that can act as summarizing devices. This integrative work is best done in group sessions where different members of the research team are able to interact and share ideas to increase insight.

-Saldana, J (2008) The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. SAGE Publications, Chapter 1, located here:

AnIntroductiontoCodesandCoding – SAGE – the…

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