Bailey CH 11-12

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By: Carol Bailey A GUIDE TO QUALITATIVE FIELD

RESEARCH CHAPTER 11 AND 12

STORYTELLING, CRITICAL EVENTS, AND ANALYTIC INDUCTION

Storytelling: Creating stories provides researchers another way to analyze

data.

Conflicting definitions and meanings but Bailey uses the terms

telling a story, narrative analysis and creating a narrative. Also

uses narrative and story as equivalent nouns.

Bailey uses these terms to describe a procedure for crafting the

story from the events in the setting.

Plot: can be quite subtle but revolutionary. Can be action in the smallest

snippet of every day life in a setting just as long as

something transpires, unfolds, occurs, or happens.

Characters: Common goal of field research is to understand a setting from the perspective

of the participants, or characters in the phrasing of creative writing.

Important points:

Know the characters’ appearance and body language, and where they are and

what is around them.

Know the details of characters’ lives-their routine and not so routine behaviors.

Identify inconsistencies and patterns in their talk, appearance and

behaviors.

Examine their speech-not just content but how and when it is said.

ELEMENTS OF STORYTELLING:

Place and time: Essential elements not merely a stage-sometimes there is a

need to reconstruct the story because of lack of chronological

ordering.

One technique: Flashbacks-withhold one crucial, insightful bit of

information to capture readers’ interest.

Summaries and Scenes: Goal is to put the readers in the setting with members

in “real” time.

Dialogues: emanates from the participants in the setting. Quotations often

richer than paraphrasing.

ELEMENTS OF STORYTELLING

Point of View: author decides who’s point of few or points of view the story

will be told from. Could be first-person omniscient narrative

approach it depends on the paradigm. For example if you are using a

post-positivist paradigm it might reflect an invisible, objective

narrator, if using the interprative paradigm the author might be

included as a central character comparing perspective with

participants.

Themes: What the story is about but is not the plot. In field research there

should be no guessing about why th story was included.

The final story: Should be compelling and provide insight.

ELEMENTS OF STORYTELLING

Critical events: Moments when things started “spiraling out of

control”, “everything changed after that”, “provide a

window into the larger world”.

Analytic Induction: Two main features: First-development of

conceptual models, including causal ones. Secondemphasizes

the search for negative cases.

ELEMENTS OF STORYTELLING

Five Steps:

1. Choose phenomena to be explained

2. Propose explanation or model

3. Code data one case at a time to determine consistency with

hypothesis

4. If negative modify hypothesis or model to accommodate new

information

5. Support and refine conceptual model until universal explanation is

found.

Interpretation: Attempts to answer key questions like why is it important and why

should anyone care

ELEMENTS OF STORYTELLING

Evaluation Criteria: Qualitative research often challenged on grounds of

validity, reliability and generalizability.

Validity and Trustworthiness: Requires conducting and presnting the research

in a way the reader can believe.

Internal Validity and Credibility: Shown when there is a correspondence

between what is reported and social phenomena being studied.

Requires accurate representation of setting.

External Validity, Generalizability, and Transferability: Determined by reader

One type: naturalistic generalizability

EVALUATION AND FINAL

MANUSCRIPT CRITERIA

Reliability and Dependability: Reliabillity implies consistency. Questions that

regardless of what they ask elicit the same reponses for interviewees.

Different researchers achieve similar results. To increase reliability

create an audit trail.

Objectivity:, Value Neutrality, and Conformability: Attempt to make sure that

your values, prejudices and beliefs do not influence research. Play the

role of the disinterested Scientist. Use a systematic procedure to

help ensure quality of work.

EVALUATION AND FINAL

MANUSCRIPT CRITERIA

Member checking: Share with memebers of the setting or colleagues who are

experts .

Peer debriefing and expert review: Possibly committeee memebr of a friend

or experts on research topic.

STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCING

VALIDITY AND TRUSTWORTHINESS

WRITING THE FINAL

MANUSCRIPT

Reflexivity and objectivity: Researchers must decide to what degree their own

voice will be heard. Know the difference between locating yourself in

the production of knowledge and being completely self-centered.

Participants voice: Original words of participants help stories come alive for

the readers. If edit dialogue be sure to explicitly explain action in

methods section.

Ethics: Using names and locations clearly violates confidentiality if an

agreement has NOT been made. Disguise adequately enough.

Consider long term implications.

FINALLY!!

1. Bailey suggests you write a one page narrative about somehting that

happened to you as a child and then one paragraph to describe why this

event is important. What does this exercise have to do with the

information presented in this chapter?

2. Bailey states that direct quotes and narrative from participant make the

narrative “richer” do you agree with this? Justify your answer.

3. Who should you have review your research according to Bailey?

4. What techniques should be employed to substantiate that qualitative

research is as valid, reliable and generalizable as quantitative research?

QUESTIONS

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