Ethics Case B: Anonymity Revisited

Mary Jones had spent three years, 1969-72, working as an applied medical anthropologist in an urban black community in the United States. In order to provide the social science communities with some data on her project, she wrote a series of articles to be published in relevant professional journals. The data included sensitive materials concerning specific epidemiological problems faced by members of the community as well as strategies and tactics used to improve health care delivery by the local community. Before submitting her articles for publication, Jones asked specific members of the community if they would read the papers for comments and criticism. Individuals from the community health center who had been part of the applied project did so and set up a meeting for discussion of the contents of the manuscripts.

The discussion began with several individuals complimenting Jones on her accurate characterization of the local situation and the sensitive way in which she addressed their health care problems and ways they chose to solve some of these. Several moments of silence passed after these initial remarks. Then an elder asked Jones why she had not given the accurate name of the community health center where much of this activity took place. Immediately, someone else asked why she had not given the accurate name of the town where the center was located. A third person asked why there were no names given for the people at the center and in the community who were involved in the project and in the “struggle to improve health care for our people.”

Jones countered with explanations regarding anthropological conventions which specified the use of pseudonyms in certain types of anthropological reporting, specifically if there was any chance that individuals or a community might be harmed. She provided some examples of instances in a nearby town where people had been harmed because the actual name of the town and the names of people there had been published in a scientific report. The participants at the meeting told her that she should use her own judgment in the final analysis, but they felt that even if she could not see that using the name of the health center might help them, at least she should name some of the people who had helped Jones and her students during their three years of work, even though Jones and her students were on the applied project to help the community.

Jones’s Dilemma: Should she defer to the community health center members’ desire that she publish the name of the health center, the town in which the health center was located, an&or the names of individuals who had asked or given permission for their names to be published (during the meeting described above)? Or, should she retain the use of pseudonyms throughout her papers?


34 thoughts on “Ethics Case B: Anonymity Revisited

  1. This case poses some questions for me. I think that Jones must have done a very good job of being a part of the community to have received such high praise and respect from the people she had worked with. It sounds as though the information in her book felt authentic to the community and thus, they wanted to be recognized. I think that I would have retained the pseudonyms because not doing so might jeopardize future work that she might want to do with other communities. Perhaps providing the names of the people who were wiling to be identified and of the health center on an acknowledgment page or in the appendix would satisfy the community member’s willingness to be identified and still retain the anonymity of the research.

    • The Ethics discussion I chose was Ethics case B: Anonymity revisited. Mary Jones and her students spent three years in an African American community to evaluate epidemiological problems faced by members of the community as well as strategies and tactics used to improve health care delivery by the local community. I believe that Mary Jones should use the peoples names in her report because their are millions of people with the same name, so the chances of any one person actually knowing who is being talked about is slim. In the other hand, the town and health center should be left as pseudonyms because it will likely increase the overall chance of the people being hurt if someone were to harm them. It is a difficult duty when one person has to make a decision for a lot of people. If one thing is done incorrectly it could jeopardize the entire community. I feel that the people of the town will understand and be happy with the results.

  2. I find the details of this case interesting. It is encouraging to have both parties choosing to be open about whether to use their names or maintain anonymity. Much like the other anonymity cases, the approach is positive for the groups to be discussing the role of anonymity, prior to any further publishing. I agree with Jones regarding using pseudonyms if the health center and its workers could be harmed. It makes senses to play it safe. Otherwise, it would bode well to have a contract of some kind to discuss the details and potential harmful effects of using the health center names and real names of the workers. Once all participants acknowledge the contract it would make future field studies and publications easier.

  3. This case is similar to the previous anonymity case. Due to the setting, it is paramount that the ethics regulations be followed. However, I can say I do not understand how the data can be useful without knowing there “where.” I’m guessing this is information that can be generally applied to a population. Not being an anthropologist or sociologist, this deduction is important for me to determine the “right and wrong.”

    As with the villagers, the people wanted to understand why the correct names were not used. The case highlights that when the situation was explained, the participants understood the need for anonymity and Jones was asked to use her own judgement. Again, I believe that with appropriate consent, the correct name of the individual can be used. As Merriellen noted, the names could be in an acknowledgment or appendix page. If the area where this study took place is not being mentioned, how can harm come to these individuals?

  4. This case is different than that first one because it was conducted in the United States and so language probably was not an issue. I would agree with Jones and VanderNoor that pseudonyms should be used if the health center and its workers could be harmed. Even if ALL the workers at the health center were educated about the dangers of publishing the real name of the center and the names of its workers, and even if they ALL signed acknowledging these facts, I still do not think this should be done. Even if ALL participants accept the possibility of harm, it is still the responsibility of the researcher. Moreover, future workers of the center might be harmed through the publication of the name and they had no choice in the matter. In my opinion, the community should remain the same as it did before the researcher came on the scene. My sweet grandmother used to always tell me, “Jeremy, it is better to be safe than sorry.” Again, the researcher is there to study and should protect his or her participants (even from themselves). I do not think I would have a problem with her acknowledging those who had helped her, but do not like the idea of using their full names. For example, “I would like to thank J. Caldwell for his…” Does anybody have any thoughts on this?

  5. This is just like the other case. Pseudonyms are a better way to go about writing the research to keep everyone protected. Jeremy said it correctly when he stated it would be a better way even with signed acknowledgement from the health center workers. As a researcher, I feel it is my job to protect my clients but also to protect myself. But, I would acknowledge those people who were most helpful in my publication…..either in my acknowledgement or thank you page. Doing this doesn’t necessarily mean I have to say the reason for my “acknowledgement,” does it?

  6. I think the protection of the clients is much more important than the recognition of the center’s workers. Jeremy brings up a good point about this happening in the US. However, I think it is more likely readers might be able to recognize their particular health center than even the previous case, and also not only recognize themselves, but also thier neighbors and communitte members. If I read about a study of a center I attended and accounts of clients were discussed, I might not be as comfortable attending the center.
    As Jessica said, a description of the area can be provided that could give information, without stating where the center is located specifically.

    • I agree with Dena that the “protection of the clients is much more important than the recognition of the center’s workers.” Publishing the names of community members, specific locale and or facilities might seem to engender attention to the plight of the denizen in that community, but the potential harm to that enclave might far outweigh the benefits. Given the era (1969-1972), it is understandable that some community members might see power in bringing focus to the issues befalling them. It is also understandable how some in the community might want accolades given to those “who were involved in the project and in the struggle to improve health care for our (the) people.” An underwhelming part of me feels that the demands of the community should override ethical considerations and dispense with the use of pseudonyms, however, Mary acted in accordance with the ethics of her field and, therefore, acted properly under the circumstances.

      • I agree with you that publishing the names of certain individuals and facilities may harm them in the long run. It is better for the researcher to use pseudonyms to protect the individuals, but the members of that community may want to be recognized or acknowledged in some way because it is their community and they may have certain feelings towards the research gathered from there. Ultimately the use of pseudonyms is more important than recognition of certain members.

  7. Providing multiple demographic characteristics should provide sufficient information without providing the name and location of the clinic. It seems to me it would be particularly important ethically and legally to use only psuedonyms. As others have mentioned it is important to not only to think of the here and now but also the past and the future. As we have seen some research becomes much more than it was originally intended and sometimes there are particular studies, 20, 30 or even more years down the road that are still relevant because they were so influential in their field of study.

  8. I feel that the participants should be protected and pseudonyms should be used instead of the actual name of the clinic. As a researcher, I feel that it is my responsibility to take all measures necessary to protect the participants in my studies. Since the participants are wanting to include their identifying information, I think that the researcher should instead provide more demographic information about the clinic. This should be done with limitations so that the actual clinic could not be identified. However, with more demographic information provided, the findings from the research could be generalized and used to increase practices at similar clinics.

  9. At first, I am inclined to say she should keep the pseudonyms. As others have already mentioned, pseudonyms in this case will protect the community (in the present as well as potentially the future), what with the sensitive information involved. And while it could be ethical to consider gaining consent from every single person in this community, one person wishing to remain anonymous would halt that whole plan; providing the identities of some would ultimately lead to the identification of the rest. It just seems highly unlikely that Jones would be able to get consent from EVERYONE. Therefore, it’d best be safe and stick with pseudonyms.

    However, I do wonder what the agreement between Jones and this community was… In other words, it’s clear what Jones gained from her being allowed to observe and participate in the community, but what did they gain? Was there an understanding that her research would benefit them directly in some way? If so, I wonder if those benefits can only come about by publishing their true names and identities? Otherwise, what would be the incentive for these people to want their identities published? I don’t know too much about medical anthropology in general, let alone what this case was investigating. So I’d like more information in order to feel more confident in making a decision.

  10. I think that Mary Jones should just publish the names of the individuals of the community and not do anything more. Especially that she wants to protect the community from any potential issues or danger from outside factors. I think it would be a safe line to walk. However, I’m not sure how it would work since she would be using pseudonyms for everything else, like for those who do not want their real names to be published or the town. This would also depend on the number of people who actually want their names published. If the number is not a lot then she could just published those names and also stick with pseudonyms for everything else. Her going against the view of the members of the community health center may affect her future work with them if she decides to stick with pseudonyms. Jones already have their support and has a good image so it is difficult to not want to upset them. However, the members of the health center may not fully reflect the views or opinions of the town. Overall, Jones should just reveal the names of those who worked with her, given their permission, and keep it safe for the rest of the community. Doing this would show that she at least took some of their advice into consideration. After all, the members of the health center did agree that the final choice is up to her to decide.

  11. In response to the ethical dilemma, Mary Jones should discuss the ethical issues and dangers that is can bring to their community if she were to use their correct names. The elders might not understand how using their names could bring complications to them and how Mary Jones’ is obligated to make the decision. Once she talks to the elders about the risks, they could make an educational decision whether or not to use pseudonyms or the correct names. If they feel that they want her to use the correct names for the health care center and the town, she should abide by their wishes. However, when it comes to the individual’s names, she should ask each informant for their consent to use their real names. The elders shouldn’t make the decisions for the individuals. According to the individual informants, Jones’ should decide to use pseudonyms or their real names. Most people who are under anthropological study are not aware of the responsibility the researcher is when keeping the community a secret so they automatically want their real names to be used. If Jones sits down with the elders’ and discusses the implications of using their real names, it’ll encourage a informed decision and a decision that the elders’ believe is right. It all comes down to communication between the two parties to decide what is the correct route to use and how to proceed with the anonymity of the town, health center, and the people.

    • Mary Jones should keep the community, the hospital, and the members of the community under pseudonymous. A fraction of the members may want the community, hospital, and their names to be revealed; however, the duty of the ethnographer is to keep the entire community safe from discovery. If the community and hospital names are exposed it could leave members of the community who did not want to be named more vulnerable to being named. In this situation a holistic approach should be used, if 99 members want to be named and one member wants to remain anonymous it is only ethical that every member remains anonymous.

    • That is a very good point Helena. Sitting down and discussing the potentional issues of releasing the individuals names is part of how Jones can get informed consent of the subjects. However, if there is not enough agreement among the subjects to release their identies, it should be understood that they have to respect the importance of any individual’s privacy. If there are any issues of an individual being pressured to agree to this, the researcher Jones needs to be aware of it. However, if Jones still decides that it is not safe or ethical for her to release the subject’s identities, hopefully through that discussion they will understand and respect her decision.

  12. Mary Jones should keep the community, the hospital, and the members of the community under pseudonymous. A fraction of the members may want the community, hospital, and their names to be revealed; however, the duty of the ethnographer is to keep the entire community safe from discovery. If the community and hospital names are exposed it could leave members of the community who did not want to be named more vulnerable to being named. In this situation a holistic approach should be used, if 99 members want to be named and one member wants to remain anonymous it is only ethical that every member remains anonymous.

  13. Jones should keep her community under pseudonymous but not all information should be kept pseudonymous. From what I see Jones has a point for not putting some important information out there such as the individuals information due to safety first. But what didn’t really make sense to me was why didn’t she put the hospital and location to make sound more believable in her hard work. I also understand that due to ethnography work the safety of community must be considered first. Jones should’ve considered the part of releasing the individuals information in the beginning before she introduces her research project because some participants may not understand the use of ethnography and how it should be apply in the community. By not giving the information during the meeting, I feel that she is losing her participants who thought she has evidence to prove her research but which failed to do so. I would totally agree that she should have considered asking the individuals for their consents and what can be released or not in public. It’s always good to ask people to review what you have done and or planned for your meeting; peer review. Having peers in the same research study area can give her some ideas of how to approach her participants during the meeting and how to gain their attentions. Summing everything up, Jones’ research and project is good because we understand she is trying to help her community out but when conducting a research that can be dangerous to the community or those individuals, she could of create and maintain a physical and social environment in which ethnographers and potential subjects accept each other’s presence. At the same time it doesn’t hurt to introduce it first with what Jones had so far because practice makes perfect and it’s good to learn from mistakes.

  14. This case suggests some conversation starters for me. I believe that Jones more likely than not done an awesome occupation of being a piece of the network to have gotten such high commendation and regard from the individuals she had worked with. It seems as if the data in her book felt valid to the network and along these lines, they needed to be perceived. I believe that I would have held the pseudonyms not doing so may risk future work that she should do with different networks. Maybe giving the names of the individuals who were wiling to be recognized and of the wellbeing focus on an affirmation page or in the index would fulfill the network part’s ability to be distinguished and still hold the secrecy of the examination.

  15. Again, the issue of credit comes up when individuals who have taken part in the research wish to be acknowledged in the publication. It is one thing to take precautions to keep people out of harms way and it is another to deny people their right to be acknowledged after participating or being involved in potentially life-saving research. It is also important to keep in mind the time in which this research had been conducted. The late sixties and early seventies of the 20th century were incredibly raw times for the black community in the United States. While allies to their struggle for justice in every aspect, including medical, were and are valued, it is critical that allies use their platforms and privilege to make space for black voices in the social sciences and in research pertaining to their community. It is clear that Jones’s work is appreciated, but she should have obtained informed consent prior to publication in order to pay homage to the individuals from the community as well as her students whom she could not have completed the research without.

  16. I feel it was odd of Jones to not consider asking people participating if they want their names used in her research. While I understand her reason to not use the real names of the participants it’s odd that she never considered how people that participated in her research would feel. It stands that some participants in her research would not have participated out of fear that their participation could be misrepresented by Jones taking away the proof that they indeed participated through removing their names. While the health center felt she did a good job I’m sure there were fears coming from the health center that any researcher using this anonymous method could falsely create their own narrative and pass it as research. Since the health center felt like her research was well done I believe Jones has the right to publish her research without using any of the names.

  17. I believe that Jones should not include the real names of the community health center, the town, or the participants involved for several reasons. The first reason is that it is not guaranteed that all of the members of the community want the health center, town, or their own names to be included. Even if most of the community want recognition and not all of them, it cannot be done. The second reason that the information should remain anonymous is that this study was done from 1969 to 1972, a time in which the black community faced inequity. Jones herself even tells the participants about how in a scientific study done in a nearby town, that people who were named faced violence. The final reason that the names of the community health center, the town, and the participants should remain anonymous is that the participants were never informed before or during the study that there are risks with publishing the real names of the data. They were only informed of the risks after the study was completed which is the incorrect way to have done this. The participants told Jones that it is up to her as to make the final decision but had the participants been informed about the risks before, they would probably realize that it is better to stay anonymous than to have the actual names published. I understand that they want recognition for their part in this study but it is not the correct option to pick.

  18. I feel the use of pseudonyms in this case is subjective. It is really contingent on what you want this study to accomplish. Is it going to be used as a call to action for policy reform, or is this a study for medical research just as an informative tool? If the later, I feel using aliases and changing the name of the location would be appropriate and would not distract from the overall goal. However, if this study is supposed to bring attention to an underlining problem in a community and raise awareness, it might be appropriate to use actual names of people and locations. By doing so the study would carry more emotional weight with it. Now, for the ethical bits. With all that in mind, if Marry Jones feel that in any way these articles could cause harm to anyone by disclosing names, she should not use them, but should make sure it is clear to the readers and the participants of the study why she feels that way.

    • Hey Kevin, I also believe that Jones should use aliases if she knows that people have been hurt under similar circumstances. It seems like the studies are happening in a specific region as she says that the violence occurred in a nearby town. Knowing that, I don’t think any name needs to be given beyond perhaps naming the county that the studies were held in. That would help readers understand where in the U.S. the people are being affected without giving away any specific information on the exact cities or people involved with the research.

    • I agree that first it is important to understand the true intentions of the journal. What is the agenda to which the study is being held and what are the changes to which they want to be done. It is hard to understand without actually being there to talk to them but in the other hand it is important to also speak with the people of the town and what they wish to be accomplished with the report.

  19. After reading the case, I believe that Jones should not reveal the names of the participants or the town in her analysis. If she already knows that people were hurt after a similar project had taken place, why would she risk having the same thing happening again? I understand that some of the participants may want to have some credit given to them for providing valuable data for the research, but their safety should come first. If the participants were informed of the risks prior to the start of the research, I think the members wouldn’t have questioned Jones’s preference to keep them anonymous. Even though they may not get their share of credit for providing valuable information, the participants should be happy and hopeful in knowing that they are eventually going to help themselves and other communities who are in the same situation.

    • I agree that it would probably have been a different situation if the towns people know from the start that another community was hurt due to sharing information in regards to names, health center and community location. safety is always first and they might be more understanding.

  20. I completely agree with you. I think that if there is no risk and it is like you said for policy or change then using the actual names can be very influential. So agree that if Jones feels in any way shape or form someone can be harmed by giving other names then she should not use them. She should make it clear that these people wanna remain anonymous and that the study will still hold merit.

    • Informing the participants of the danger prior to the start of the project would have been a good choice to make in my opinion, but. as Jones said, the participants may not want to continue any further on the research. I agree with you on the point that the study will still be immensely useful without using actual names as it can be applied to any place that is in a similar situation.

  21. This case is quite similar to Ethics Case A. I think it is great that she consulted with the members of the community first and those who worked at the health center. In this case, to keep those involves safe, I think that she should not disclose the exact location of the health center. I believe that those who would like their names to be included should be given that opportunity, while still keeping the health center anonymous. I applaud the members of the health center when giving Jones the upper hand. They trusted her judgment and knew that whatever she chose to do would be the right thing for the community.

  22. This is quite the predicament indeed. On one hand, you have a group of people voicing out their opinion, however, their opinion seems dicey to you. On the other hand, you have your opinion which you see as the correct way to go. I don’t see a right or wrong way to go about this issue. If she decides to go with her opinion, there is a possibility that the trust of the community may diminish as they will see it as her not giving any attention to their opinions. On the other hand, you have your opinion which seems like the most logical and safe one. If I had to choose I’d do something in between. So based on the author’s given evidence, it seems as though providing too much research information will bring about harm to the people being researched. However, if no relevant data is provided in the research, what’s the point of it? Researches strongly depend on the data and information included so if that’s not there, you can’t call it a research, rather it may be known as an essay or piece of writing. I’d include information regarding the health center as it’s most likely a vital part of the report. For example, I’d say, “A healthcare I have immersed myself into during a period of 3 years located in the Central Valley of California has suffered tremendously due to insufficient funding from the Local and Federal Government.” So here, instead of using fake names or beating around the bush, I gave relevant but not entirely detailed information regarding the place, area, and issue. We should also consider future generations who may look into this research and depend on it for possible breakthroughs in knowledge and solutions. Transparency is key in achieving what you want and receiving what is needed. So in essence, I believe the author should publish (but not too much) the names of what she researched for a better outcome or solution to occur. She should be considerate of the possible dangers and implications she can run into if she decides to publish too much information. As stated in the text, “She provided some examples of instances in a nearby town where people had been harmed because the actual name of the town and the names of people there had been published in a scientific report.” Too much of anything is always bad and this is certainly not an exception.

  23. I understand Mary’s dilemma regarding the issues in using names in anthropological reporting and having good intentions for the community. However, if members of the community agree that their names should not be hidden then it should be okay to actually use their names. I believe it is acceptable in this situation because the community members are giving their full consent and are proud to be a part of this project. Although I am not 100% certain, I think if their actual names are published I do not think any harm will be brought to them. If Mary is still uncomfortable using their real names for the project, the community members suggested a great idea of only using their real names and creating pseudonyms for the town and community names.

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